The bases for the National Economic and Social Development Plan until 2030, the National Environmental Strategy, Law 81 on the Environment, and the recently adopted State Plan to Confronting Climate Change in the Republic of Cuba (Task Life) seek to integrate economic and social development into biodiversity conservation and sustainable management.
The finance mechanisms used for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use and the gaps in their operation have been identified. This has highlighted the need to get them improved to optimize their implementation as well as that of new finance mechanisms.
The major difficulties for the implementation of economic mechanisms are identified in the institutional framework. There is a need to build capacities that ensure the systematic implementation of the policies that have been adopted.
The most outstanding recommendations include:
reviewing and updating the legal framework, involving new stakeholders to move toward diversified sources of biodiversity finance;
ensuring that the Ministry of Finance and Prices implements accounting standards that identify biodiversity income and expenditure and make it possible to establish other finance mechanisms; and
promoting the design, implementation and evaluation of mechanisms that enable to redistribute and use biodiversity-generated income in conservation and/or management activities, among others.
The BIOFIN initiative has developed its work while closely supporting the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and its Plan of Action for 2016-2020. The direct interrelation with the national experts who formulated NBSAP and the training of a large group of experts on the process to identify biodiversity-related actions are some of the unique features of the Cuban experience.
Prepared for BIOFIN key stakeholders, the “Training Manual on Biological Diversity” facilitates the identification of biodiversity expenditure.
The analysis that has been conducted showed that total biodiversity expenditure in the 2010-2016 period had exceeded 5,362 millions pesos (MMP), with an average annual expenditure of 766 million. Implementation in 2016 was 2.8 times higher than that of 2010.
The agencies with the highest volumes of expenditure included the Ministry of Agriculture (68 per cent), the Ministry of Higher Education (10 per cent), and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (7 per cent).
Considering BIOFIN categories, 43 per cent of expenditure goes to restoration; 19 per cent, to awareness-raising and knowledge generation; and 10 per cent, to protected areas and conservation measures.
Biodiversity finance needs were identified through results-based budgeting for the 20 goals under the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) for 2016 -2020.
A methodology was prepared to help stakeholders identify the information necessary to budget NBSAP action results for the first time in the country. This methodological tool will be used to budget future biodiversity goals.
The permanent interrelation between BIOFIN and NBSAP implementers in the 2016-2020 period has made it possible to exchange information and develop the Sixth Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
The total budgeted expenditure for NBSAP implementation (2016-2020) amounted to 1,506 million pesos, with 719 million in financing and 786 million in identified gap.
Based on the results obtained, a mapping tool that includes the 20 goals under NBSAP and its financing gaps was developed. The finance solutions devised for Cuba according to the BIOFIN Catalogue were also identified. The process involved the consideration of the feasibility of implementing such solutions.
The Finance Plan includes a number of finance solutions that can be implemented in Cuba to mobilize resources for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, while minimizing the existing gap level.
In Cuba, the State Budget is the main source of biodiversity finance, complemented mostly by national funds and national and international projects.
The Finance Plan foresees a gradual increase in income due to the progressive incorporation of finance solutions from 2019 to 2030.
Efforts are currently underway to articulate finance solutions into various time horizons, considering in the short term those that require no significant modifications in the legal and institutional frameworks and can therefore see a speedy implementation.