BIOFIN Catalogue of Finance Solutions

BIOFIN Catalogue of Finance Solutions

The biodiversity finance landscape is changing. Both domestic and international financial flows have grown and the range of financing instruments, providers and delivery mechanisms now available is significantly wider than ever before. This online “catalogue” is a comprehensive list of these instruments, tools and strategies that are applicable to the field of biodiversity finance. Each catalogue entry is a mechanism or “finance solution” and includes a brief description as well as links to guidance material or case studies.

The searchable catalogue below provides a listing of all solutions profiled. Solutions can also be searched by the financial result they produce, the financial instrument they rely upon, whether they are public or private finance, and the economic sector in which their use is most prevalent.

This finance solutions catalogue is open source and is available for anyone to use. BIOFIN encourages the use of the catalogue and the sharing of it on other websites. We request that any other organisation sharing or using elements from the catalogue appropriately acknowledge UNDP-BIOFIN and alert us to its use by sending an email to BIOFIN@undp.org. We also request that you include a link to this page as the original source of the biodiversity finance solutions catalogue.

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Finance Solutions

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68 Results

Biodiversity friendly subsidies

Government subsidies that favor biodiversity by supporting individuals and organizations acting in biodiversity friendly ways. Subsidies can take many forms including tax relief, technical support, price support, etc. This can include biodiversity friendly businesses such as ecotourism, sustainable agriculture, non-timber forest products, reduced impact forestry, fisheries, etc. 

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Water

Water

Subsidies for organic agriculture

Government subsidies that support actors in the organic agriculture industry to encourage expansion of organic production or other sustainable agricultural system. Subsidies can take many forms including tax relief, technical support, price support and can support individuals, companies and organizations. 

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Biodiversity offsets

Measurable conservation outcomes resulting from actions designed to compensate for significant residual biodiversity loss arising from project development after appropriate prevention and mitigation measures have been taken. Offsets can, for example, deliver biodiversity benefits (e.g. reforestation) through a transaction, where offset sellers (e.g. a conservation NGO) sell offsets to developers (e.g. a mining company) who seek to compensate the residual biodiversity loss. Offsets have been established in the agriculture, forest, construction, manufacturing and mining sectors. The aggregating of offsets under a policy framework can optimise the biodiversity benefit by increasing ecosystem connectivity, preventing future habitat fragmentation and creating large contiguous sites.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Water

Water

Wetland banking

Measurable conservation outcome resulting from a trading system (or market) where offset credits are tradable units of exchange defined by the ecological value associated with verifiable changes and management of a natural wetland habitat. A mitigation bank is a wetland, stream, or other aquatic resource area that has been restored and preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for expected adverse impacts to similar ecosystems nearby. The value of a bank is defined in compensatory mitigation credits that can be traded or sold. Most systems are designed for no net loss of wetlands even following residual development impacts.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Forests

Forests

Mining

Mining

Water

Water

Countries:

Nutrient trading

Measurable conservation outcome resulting from a trading system (or market) where nutrient reduction credits are established and traded. These credits can have a monetary value that may be paid to the seller for utilising management practices that reduce nitrogen, phosphorous, or sediment. In general, water quality trading utilizes a market-based approach that allows one source of water pollution to maintain its regulatory obligations by using pollution reductions created by another source. Trades can take place between point sources (e.g. wastewater treatment plants), between point and nonpoint sources (e.g. a wastewater treatment plant and a farming operation) or between nonpoint sources (such as agriculture and urban stormwater sites or systems). Systems can be voluntary or compliance.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Forests

Forests

Mining

Mining

Water

Water

Biobanking (habitat/species)

Measurable conservation outcome resulting from an exchange system (or market) where offset credits can be accumulated and sold to developers to compensate for their species or habitat impacts. Credits are tradable units of exchange defined by the ecological value associated with intentional changes or management of a natural habitat. Biobanking includes habitat banking and species banking and is usually focused on endangered habitats and species. Biobanking shares certain features with tradable permit schemes whereby an objective of no net loss of biodiversity is established and provides developers with flexibility to determine either to invest in their own compensation or offset or to purchase a credit that has been developed by others (environmental banks). 

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Forests

Forests

Mining

Mining

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Bioprospecting

Bioprospecting is the systematic search for biochemical and genetic material in nature in order to develop commercially-valuable products for pharmaceutical, agricultural, cosmetic and other applications. The rationale is to extract the maximum commercial value from genetic resources and indigenous knowledge, while creating a fair compensation system that can benefit all.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Trade

Trade

Biosafety fee

The fee charged to the importer of biological material into a country. It can be used to recover the expenditures of the national agency mandated with preventing alien invasive species (AIS), health threats and other agricultural pests from entering certain geographical areas. Mostly used in island states. It can also be part of an import duty or fee.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Bonus Malus

Incentive mechanism that awards biodiversity friendly behavior or decisions a bonus payment and non-friendly a malus payment. Has been applied on private land owners to encourage establishment of spatially adjacent (or for certain species spatially dispersed) protected areas to existing protected areas by awarding the land owner a bonus payment (or to pay a malus) when the conservation is adjacent to existing protected areas. Oregon's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP), used malus payments to assist the recovery of salmon and trout species through the creation of riparian buffers along stream habitat.

 

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Carbon markets

Carbon markets aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cost-effectively by setting limits on emissions and enabling trading of emission units (instruments representing emission reductions). Trading enables entities that can reduce emissions at low cost to be paid to do so by high-cost emitters, thus lowering the economic cost of reducing emissions. Carbon markets can include emission allocation credits as well as emission reduction credits such as carbon offset credits. In various carbon markets, forest or agricultural based offset credits may be used to offset industrial emission

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Transport

Transport

Voluntary climate financing

Voluntary climate financing is when individuals, companies and organizations finance climate change actions (mitigation or adaptation) with no regulatory or market benefits. Voluntary financing occurs for a variety of climate mitigation actions including sustainable forestry (see REDD+), agriculture, and rangelands. Companies and individuals purchase voluntary carbon credits for moral, public relations, and internal policy purposes. Some companies have instigated internal carbon trading (i.e. Microsoft) to reduce carbon efficiency.

 

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Forests

Forests

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Transport

Transport

REDD+

Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) is a climate mitigation practice that reduces carbon emissions through documented changes to forest protection and management practices. Since forests are important repositories of carbon, reducing deforestation or improving forest management can avoid the emissions of carbon. REDD+ can secure financing for protecting forests and for enhancing sustainable forestry practices. Currently available through voluntary carbon markets, REDD+ projects may be part of national compliance mechanisms in the near future. REDD+ projects seek to include biodiversity and social criteria in their design and implementation and are a very cost effective means to climate mitigation.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Climate credit mechanisms

Climate crediting mechanisms, like other carbon market mechanisms, enable entities, for which the cost of reducing emissions is high, to pay low-cost emitters for carbon credits that they can use towards meeting their emission-reduction obligations, or for voluntary or trading purposes. These mechanisms-e.g. the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)-put a price on carbon, helping to internalize the environmental and social costs of carbon pollution, and permit trading, which lowers the economic cost of reducing emissions.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Compensation for planned environmental damage

Financial or other compensation paid by companies, private individuals, or governments for planned environmental damage as part of infrastructure or project development. Compensation levels and forms of compensation are usually determined by law and can be fixed amounts, calculated relative to investment or company sizes, or based on remediation costs and economic damages.  

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Conservation easement

A conservation easement is a restriction placed on a piece of property to protect its associated resources. The easement is voluntarily donated, can generate tax credits, or can be sold by the landowner. It limits certain types of uses or prevents development from taking place on the land in perpetuity while the land remains in private hands. Easements protect land for future generations while allowing owners to retain certain private property rights. Conservation easement are traditionally incentivised with tax breaks.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Water

Water

Conservation or wildlife themed items

Special commercial products featuring wildlife are sold at an extra price to costumers and the extra revenues are channelled to environmental causes and projects illustrated by the product/item, mostly related to conservation and the protection of wildlife. Examples include, licence plates, special ringtones and screensavers (mobile communication), gifts sold at zoos, etc.

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Transport

Transport

Products sold for conservation or wildlife

A range of products from chocolate, water bottles, toys, cloths, etc. are developed and sold to help generate profit for conservation and endangered species. A significant percentage of profit should go to target NGOs or conservation efforts or the product may be seen as benefitting from marketing nature while not actually contributing (green washing).

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Transport

Transport

Conservation license plates

Special license plates featuring wildlife images that are sold at a higher price to car owners. The extra income is channelled to environmental causes and projects illustrated by the plate, mostly related to conservation and protection of wildlife. This practice is used in many states in the USA.

Result

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Transport

Transport

Countries:

Corporate and corporate foundations' donations

Corporations provide support to organizations implementing sustainable development including nonprofits through direct-giving programs, private foundations, and/or public charities. As well, companies can also offer their employees' time by encouraging employee volunteerism. A foundation can be established as part of a company's corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy and be funded via the allocation of a percentage of accrued profits, an endowment or other means. Annual giving could range from a few hundreds thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions. They may or may not have a specific mandate or geographic coverage. Some companies and corporate foundations have a focus on biodiversity and conservation.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Corporate social responsibility tax

Special form of government taxation that requires (usually large) companies to spend a percent of their profits every year on corporate social responsibility (CSR) - usually through financing NGOs or paying into government social investment funds. The main difference from traditional taxations is that the companies will be able to decide where to invest and implement programs. This solution has been piloted in only a few countries (e.g. India, Seychelles), with limited documented evidence of its effectiveness relative to other approaches.

Result

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Type

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Other

Other

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Corporate sustainability

The integration of sustainability thinking and practice in business operations helps companies live up to their responsibilities as global citizens and local neighbors and can significantly strengthen business resilience and profitability. Effective corporate sustainability can offer clear business benefits for operations, reputation, new products and markets, and finance and can significantly reduce business risks. A vast literature and international standards can help companies to follow more sustainable business practices.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Generate

Any existing or innovative mechanism that can generate and/or leverage financial resources for biodiversity.

Generate

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Grant

Any solution that invovles the allocation of a grant. This includes private donations and Official Development Assistance.

Grant

Market

Any solution that involves a market transaction, e.g. ecosystem services and carbon markets.

Market

Risk

Any solution that invovles the transfer of risks between two or more parties, e.g. a guarantee.

Risk

Public/Private
Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining

Other

Other

Tourism

Tourism

Trade

Trade

Transport

Transport

Water

Water

Technology upgrade and maintenance

Business strategies aimed at switching to more cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies (e.g. fuel efficient cars, energy efficient buildings, improved agricultural methods, etc.) Maintenance strategies are also included when they can expand the life of certain assets. While cost-effective, these strategies might require an initial capital expenditure. They are usually encouraged through internal company policies, regulatory measures or through providing targeted access to capital.

Result

Avoid

Any measure that can prevent or reduce future investment needs by eliminating/amending existing counter-productive policies and expenditures (e.g. taxes on sugar content or tobacco).

Avoid

Deliver

Any measure or strategy that can enhance cost-effectiveness/efficiency, synergies and/or favour a more equitable distribution of resources.

Deliver

Realign

Any measure that can re-orient and realign existing financial flows towards biodiversity conservation. 

Realign

Type

Debt/Equity

Any solution that invovles an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset).

Debt/Equity

Fiscal

Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, i.e. changes in taxation or the modification of a subsidy's regime.

Fiscal

Regulatory

Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, i.e. the imposition of a certain behaviour through the law or a regulation.

Regulatory

Public/Private
Public

Public

Private

Private

Sector

Agriculture

Agriculture

Energy

Energy

Finance

Finance

Fishing

Fishing

Forests

Forests

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Mining

Mining