Colombia

The BIOFIN project began its activities in Colombia in March 2015, joining a group of 40 beneficiary countries for this initiative, within this group, 11 countries belong to the Latin America cohort.

National context background

Colombia is the most biodiverse country per square kilometer in the world. Biodiversity management affects the social and economic development of a large portion of the population; it is a matter of interest for the national economic policy due to its impact. The analysis and implementation of BIOFIN’s strategy in Colombia has allowed a detailed examination of past investments in protection, conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity, inclusion of sectorial policies and strategies for fair and social equitable distribution to determine tendencies, financing gaps and opportunities aimed at meeting the country’s goals for biodiversity and the AICHI biodiversity targets in the meetings of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Our strategy

  • To optimize the allocation of current public expenditure on biodiversity conservation.
  • To improve the effectiveness of economic and financial instruments related to biodiversity management.
  • To assess, facilitate and intensify the participation of the private sector in biodiversity management in the country.
  • To innovate in financial and economic mechanisms that contribute to financial leverage of proposed goals.
  • To articulate biodiversity finance with peace, green growth, and climate change finance.

Key Results

  • Consolidation of BIOFIN’s technical committee with the participation of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, the Ministry of Finance, the National Planning Department, the National Administrative Department of Statistics, and the National Environmental Licensing Authority
  • Design of a strategy and joint action plan between the BIOFIN project and the Readiness for Green Climate Fund within the framework of the Financial Management Committee of the National Climate Change System (SISCLIMA, acronym in Spanish).
  • Proposal of economic analysis, financial valuation, and budget design, including the biodiversity variable of the first Colombian project to be presented to the Green Climate Fund).
  • Participation in the construction of goals and indicators of the national baseline for Sustainable Development Goals (GDS), focusing on those directly associated with biodiversity.
  • Connection and assessment of the economic benefits of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the construction of peace in Colombia.
  • Formulation and implementation of the District Program of Payments for environmental services, jointly the District Secretary for the Environment and the Mayor's Office of Bogotá.
  • Technical support in the construction of the national policy for protected areas in Colombia by 2030.
  • Support in the formulation of projects for the conservation and restoration of protected areas and other strategic areas of environmental importance at the regional level, to mobilized resources of the 1% of the current income of the territorial entities that must be invested in the environment, royalties, and carbon tax.
  • Support  to the Colombian government in preparations to achieve its biodiversity goals acquired in the Convention of Biological Diversity.
  • Incorporation of the technical debate on harmful incentives in the mobilization and redirection of resources for the financing of biodiversity.
  • Evaluation and monitoring of the impact of COVID-19 on Biodiversity Finances.
Finance Solutions
Key documents
Policy and Institutional Review (PIR)

The following document provides an identification process of institutional actors nationally, regionally and locally. This process is to be set with the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan (NBSAP). It aims at promoting the construction of possible scenarios where actors can actively and positively be part of the biodiversity management process. Infographics were used to facilitate the understanding and relation of positive and negative factors, as well as actors. These infographics also contribute to summarize the analysis done.

Expenditure Review (BER)

Below you will find the review of Public Expenditure on Biodiversity in Colombia. It was made based on a tracking method of national public investing projects. This method works with selected and validated descriptors and uses an experimental logistic regression method. 

On the other hand, the budget of 1.102 municipalities and 32 departments was analyzed in a subnational sphere using sequential codes from public expenditure review of such territorial entities with the classification method of expenditure identification. This method was used nationally and classified according to BIOFIN’s taxonomy. 

On the basis of the foregoing, here are some strategic outcomes: annual investment in biodiversity is close to $243 million U.S. dollars, which represents 0.11% of the GDP, 0.49% of the national general budget and 22.9% of the public environmental expenditure of the country. These resources are allocated as follows: 38% for protection, 27% for restoration, 9% for sustainable use of biodiversity, 13% for incorporation, 12% for aplication and 1% for benefit participation. 

The private sector invests an average of $30 million U.S. dollars at standard 2015 prices. According to expenditure classification of AICHI, expenditure has been allocated as follows: 27% for Restoration, 53% for Protection, 11.44% for incorporation of the biodiversity variable in other planning policies and instruments, and 9% for benefit participation. 

Needs Assessment (FNA)

Costing for the Biodiversity National Action Plan for the 2017-2030-period is calculated in $4.8 billion U.S. dollars. 85.9% of the investment will be allocated to axis 1 of the plan: biodiversity, nature conservation and protection. They are in line with the historic review of strategies showing that 77% of the resources were allocated to restoration and protection. The remaining 14% was allocated to the other five axes. The most representative axes are axis 3 (economic development) with 7.8% and axis 4 (research) with 5.2%. 

According to macroeconomic assumptions of the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, a comparison of the additional annual resources required and the business-as-usual scenario of the review, it is necessary to increase the average annual investment in $103 million U.S. dollars in order to cover the budget deficit estimated at $1.44 billion U.S. dollars and increase the average annual public expenditure on biodiversity in Colombia (2000/2015) from $240 million U.S. dollars to $447 million U.S. dollars (2017-2030),

Finance Plan (BFP)

BIOFIN in Colombia has an additional challenge: taking into account that the country is experiencing a process of economic, social and political transformation, many budgetary adjustments are affecting the annual amounts destined for biodiversity and environmental accounts in genera. The variability in oil prices, the depreciation of the national currency and the country's commitments associated with peacebuilding will imply additional efforts in public and private financing. On the other hand, Colombia is facing a situation of loss of biodiversity because of the decrease, loss or degradation of elements of native ecosystems and agroecosystems. 

The Biodiversity Financial Plan was built by articulating three priority themes in the country's Development Agenda: 1) The consolidation of peace, 2) Green growth and 3) Finances of sustainable development (Climate Change and Biodiversity). The above in order to take advantage of the momentum that the National Agenda is giving to these issues, and where Biodiversity management plays a very important role in a transversal way.