Kazakhstan

BIOFIN started in Kazakhstan at the end of 2013. UNDP implements BIOFIN in Kazakhstan jointly with the Forestry and Wildlife Committee under the Ministry of Agriculture. Under the project, the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) was updated and the financial needs for its implementation until 2030 estimated.  The project actively cooperates with state authorities, NGOs and the private sector. Project experts are working on improving legal frameworks that affect conservation of biodiversity. Currently, all analyzes and financing plan are prepared according to the BIOFIN methodology.

Kazakhstan is located deep in Eurasia, with an area of 2.72 million square km. Kazakhstan has a unique variety of landscapes: from deserts to mountains and inland sea ecosystems. Arid and sub-humid lands occupy more than 75 % of the country. They contain more than 40% of the entire species diversity of the country.

Kazakhstan has a huge space of preserved steppe ecosystems that have been destroyed in other countries of Eurasia, enabling a large part of the populations of steppe species to find refuge there. Those include globally threatened species such as saigas, baibak marmots, steppe birch mice, a number of jerboa species, etc., and birds like pallid harriers, lapwings, steppe black-winged pratincoles, white-headed ducks and many others.

The territory of the Kazakhstan is inhabited by vertebrate species, which belong to the wild ancestors of domestic animals. Among mammals are mouflon, argali, wild boar, wild ass, wolf, spotted cat and several others. Among birds are primarily mallards, gray geese, quails and others. Despite the vast territory and low population density, many fauna species are rare or endangered, mainly due to habitat destruction and illegal hunting . The Red Book of Kazakhstan (2006) describes 125 species of vertebrates (15%), including 40 species of mammals and 57 species of birds. The flora of Kazakhstan is estimated to have more than 13 thousand species.

Around 14% of plant species are endemic. Kazakhstan has unique genetic resources of globally important floristic agrobiodiversity (Sivers Apple, Niedzwiecki Apple and ordinary apricot). According to 2013 data, they include 226 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants, determining the genetic potential for 24 agricultural crops. 

 

Key Results

BIOFIN Kazakhstan’s work on the creation of legislative frameworks for the implementation of six new innovative finance solutions, with the aim of protecting and restoring the country’s nature, is already gaining support at the highest levels in the country.

The UNDP Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) contributed to the development of the new Environmental Code by proposing norms that aim at the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity based on the principle of equitable distribution and access to natural benefits. These norms include biodiversity offsets, voluntary payments for ecosystem services, principles for the development of ecotourism in protected areas, carbon offsets and “green investments”.

These changes in environmental legislation go hand in hand with Kazakhstan’s commitments to conserve biodiversity and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.

Finance Solutions
Key documents
Policy and Institutional Review (PIR)

Policy and Institutional Review is the analyses of the political and socio-economic factors leading to changes in biodiversity and ecosystems. The review includes analysis of a wide range of institutions in general across many industries, defining their roles in planning for biodiversity financing, their impact and interdependence with biodiversity, the coherence between the targets and the national biodiversity goals, and the overall capacity level.

Expenditure Review (BER)

Public and private biodiversity expenditure review for 2008-2014 is completed by the project team in 2015. Under the review the amount and efficiency of allocated funds for biodiversity conservation were determined. According to the analysis, the state budget is the only guaranteed source of biodiversity funding. The total amount of funds for biodiversity in 2008-2014 amounted to 1.2 bln dollars, of them the state budget funds accounted for 87% of total biodiversity funding.

Needs Assessment (FNA)

Financial needs assessment for biodiversity conservation in Kazakhstan was completed in 2016. FNA is an assessment of the required expenses to achieve the national goals on biodiversity conservation in Kazakhstan and expected financial gap. According to the assessment, the required budget for the implementation of the national goals is USA 851 million, and the share of the financial deficit from the existing biodiversity financing is more than 55%.