Georgia is located in one of the biodiversity-rich parts of the world. It is within one of WWF’s “priority places” (the greater Black Sea basin), as well as two biodiversity hotspots (the Caucasus and Iran-Anatolian hotspots) identified by Conservation International. The main biomes found in Georgia are forests (approximately 43% of the country area), freshwater systems and wetlands, marine and coastal habitats, high mountains, semi-deserts and steppes.

Georgian flora is one of the richest among the countries with moderate climates with 4,130 vascular plant species, including around 900 species (approximately 21%) that are either Caucasian or Georgian endemics. 95-98% of Georgian forests have natural origins. The composition, structure, growth, development and other characteristics determine a rich biological diversity – up to 400 tree and shrub species grow in Georgian forests. A large number of endemic timber tree species points to the high diversity of dendroflora. Many local variations of domestic crops, as well as their wild relatives (especially wheats and legumes), are distributed in Georgia. At the same time, 16,054 animal species have been described, 758 of which are chordates. 19 mammals, three birds, 15 reptiles and three amphibians are Caucasian endemics, while the Adjarian lizard (Darevskia mixta) is endemic to Georgia. Protected Areas of Georgia currently cover 11.4% of the country area.

Besides the intrinsic value, the biodiversity of Georgia provides life-sustaining ecosystem services, natural resources and recreational benefits for the population. For instance, the regulating ecosystem services provided by Georgian forests have vital importance for the safety and well-being of the population and different industries, such services are the provision of clean water, mitigation of flood risks, prevention of soil erosion, mitigation of the risks and impacts of landslides, avalanches and mudflows, as well as carbon sequestration. About 2,000 species of Georgian flora have direct economic value, E.g. utilized as timber, firewood, food and animal feed, exported for decorative purposes, plants are also used in medicine, painting and essential oil production. Animal species in Georgia are important for hunting and fishing purposes. Currently, 24 birds and 13 mammals are listed as the hunting species.

Key Results

  • Starting from 2019, the annual state budget allocations for Forest and Biodiversity Department has increased from 100,000 GEL to 400,000 GEL annually. In total, the biodiversity-related annual state budget allocations have been increased by 620,000 GEL (around 240,000 USD).
  • The first-ever specific biodiversity-related guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports were prepared and an online tool was developed for the application of the checklists during the monitoring and inspection.
  • A 5-year eco-tourism development plan was elaborated for the Borjomi Municipality state forest. The plan is being successfully replicated by the National Forestry Agency for larger forest areas of Georgia.
  • Donation platform was developed to support fundraising for the Tbilisi Zoo conservation efforts.
  • The Fundraising Action Plan for rehabilitation of the 3 endemic endangered species (Tur, Bezoar Goat and Deer) and captive bears was developed.
  • The natural resource usage and regulatory fees were defined for the most commercially viable NTFP species. Methodology for calculation usage and regulatory fees was developed.
Finance Solutions
Key Documents
Policy and Institutional Review (PIR)

The Biodiversity Finance Policy and Institutional Review forms a reference point for the whole BIOFIN process.  The document establishes a baseline of the national policy and institutional context in which the BIOFIN project is expected to expand biodiversity finance in Georgia. 


Expenditure Review (BER)

A Biodiversity Expenditure Review is focused on all types of expenditure contributing to sustainable biodiversity protection and management. Along with the public-sector expenditures, private sector spending and spending by international donor organizations, and NGOs are analyzed. Based on these analyses, there are calculated total expenditure figures, useful to summarize the BD financing trends and status on national level. 

Needs Assessment (FNA)

The Financial Needs Assessment (FNA) study revealed and calculated the total amount of funding required to sustain and protect biodiversity in Georgia. FNA covered not only NBSAP, but other areas which have a significant effect on biodiversity and ecosystem services. 

Finance Plan (BFP)

This Biodiversity Finance Plan (BFP) has been developed to identify and support the implementation of biodiversity finance solutions that together have the potential to significantly improve the management and financing of biodiversity management in Georgia.