Mongolian territory spans across the Siberian taiga to the Central Asian dry steppes and the deserts. Due to the transitional ecosystems and harsh continental climatic conditions, the biodiversity in Mongolia is unique and delicate. Pastoral livestock husbandry is well adapted to seasonal climatic and geographical conditions, and is an important part of the biodiversity.

The pristine natural and semi-natural ecosystems are dominant in Mongolia (98.4% of the total territory), and the species composition is still in healthy condition, which provides the opportunity to reduce potential expenditures on biodiversity conservation. However, reflecting on the economic sectoral impacts on biodiversity, a very little effort has been made to sustainable management of natural resources by the main economic sectors reliant on natural resources (livestock husbandry) and sectors based on natural resources (minerals resources). Hence, the future biodiversity loss and degradation may get worse, which in turn increases conservation expenditures rather than curtailing them. 

In Mongolia, BIOFIN was officially initiated in September 2015 by UNDP with an endorsement by the Ministry of Environment, Green Development and Tourism (presently Ministry of Environment and Tourism). BIOFIN research and analyses are conducted within the framework of the National Biodiversity Program (NBP) 2015 – 2025. NBP was developed in the context of Aichi targets, Sustainable development vision and the Green development policy, and was approved by the Government Decree #325 in August 2015.

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