The following document provides an identification process of institutional actors nationally, regionally and locally. This process is to be set with the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plan (NBSAP). It aims at promoting the construction of possible scenarios where actors can actively and positively be part of the biodiversity management process. Infographics were used to facilitate the understanding and relation of positive and negative factors, as well as actors. These infographics also contribute to summarize the analysis done.
Below you will find the review of Public Expenditure on Biodiversity in Colombia. It was made based on a tracking method of national public investing projects. This method works with selected and validated descriptors and uses an experimental logistic regression method.
On the other hand, the budget of 1.102 municipalities and 32 departments was analyzed in a subnational sphere using sequential codes from public expenditure review of such territorial entities with the classification method of expenditure identification. This method was used nationally and classified according to BIOFIN’s taxonomy.
On the basis of the foregoing, here are some strategic outcomes: annual investment in biodiversity is close to $243 million U.S. dollars, which represents 0.11% of the GDP, 0.49% of the national general budget and 22.9% of the public environmental expenditure of the country. These resources are allocated as follows: 38% for protection, 27% for restoration, 9% for sustainable use of biodiversity, 13% for incorporation, 12% for aplication and 1% for benefit participation.
The private sector invests an average of $30 million U.S. dollars at standard 2015 prices. According to expenditure classification of AICHI, expenditure has been allocated as follows: 27% for Restoration, 53% for Protection, 11.44% for incorporation of the biodiversity variable in other planning policies and instruments, and 9% for benefit participation.
Costing for the Biodiversity National Action Plan for the 2017-2030-period is calculated in $4.8 billion U.S. dollars. 85.9% of the investment will be allocated to axis 1 of the plan: biodiversity, nature conservation and protection. They are in line with the historic review of strategies showing that 77% of the resources were allocated to restoration and protection. The remaining 14% was allocated to the other five axes. The most representative axes are axis 3 (economic development) with 7.8% and axis 4 (research) with 5.2%.
According to macroeconomic assumptions of the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, a comparison of the additional annual resources required and the business-as-usual scenario of the review, it is necessary to increase the average annual investment in $103 million U.S. dollars in order to cover the budget deficit estimated at $1.44 billion U.S. dollars and increase the average annual public expenditure on biodiversity in Colombia (2000/2015) from $240 million U.S. dollars to $447 million U.S. dollars (2017-2030),
BIOFIN in Colombia has an additional challenge: taking into account that the country is experiencing a process of economic, social and political transformation, many budgetary adjustments are affecting the annual amounts destined for biodiversity and environmental accounts in genera. The variability in oil prices, the depreciation of the national currency and the country's commitments associated with peacebuilding will imply additional efforts in public and private financing. On the other hand, Colombia is facing a situation of loss of biodiversity because of the decrease, loss or degradation of elements of native ecosystems and agroecosystems.
The Biodiversity Financial Plan was built by articulating three priority themes in the country's Development Agenda: 1) The consolidation of peace, 2) Green growth and 3) Finances of sustainable development (Climate Change and Biodiversity). The above in order to take advantage of the momentum that the National Agenda is giving to these issues, and where Biodiversity management plays a very important role in a transversal way.