Annex II: The BIOFIN Expenditures Categories

Classification Level 1 Definition Classification Level 2
Access and benefit sharing Access to genetic resources, with a focus on prior informed consent, and the distribution of the benefits of genetic diversity, with a focus on equity and transparency (to those whose knowledge is used) and on mutually agreed terms. Contractual arrangement
Financial compensation
Cost of notification to ABS clearing house mechanism
Nagoya Protocol (ratified/enforced)
Bioprospecting, including establishing permitting processes and enabling FPIC/PIC consultations
Biodiversity awareness and knowledge Any campaign, action or initiative aimed at raising awareness about biodiversity, its use and/or its value, whether in informal or formal settings; and any action aimed at generating and providing the data and/or information required to make sound decisions regarding biodiversity; scientific research and investigation into key areas related to all aspects of biodiversity, including ecological, social, economic sciences. Data generation and spatial mapping
Formal biodiversity education
Non-formal biodiversity education, including technical training
Biodiversity awareness (e.g. public awareness campaigns, park visitor education, events)
Biodiversity communication
Biodiversity scientific research
ICT innovation for biodiversity
Valuation of biodiversity and ecosystems
Indigenous and local communities knowledge
CBD clearing-house mechanism
Biosafety Prevention, containment, and eradication of invasive alien species (IAS) as well as safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs/GMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, also taking into account risks to human health. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including living modified organisms (LMOs)
Invasive Alien Species (IAS)
Green economy Sustainable biodiversity benefits from private and public sector actions that aim to reduce negative impacts on nature through improved design, engineering, planning, investing, operations, policy, and management. Certain initiatives go beyond reducing negative impacts to encompass the financing and management of nature through green infrastructure, biodiversity-friendly business, sustainability certification, and greening supply chains. Climate change mitigation (industry) benefits biodiversity indirectly and is included. Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
GHG mitigation
Green supply chain
Sustainable extractive industries
Sustainable consumption
Sustainable energy
Sustainable investing
Sustainable tourism
Sustainable transportation
Sustainable urban areas
Biodiversity and development planning National, state or local planning, policy, finance, legal, coordination, and enforcement actions that cover multiple biodiversity categories or general issues such as biodiversity and development planning and policy. Biodiversity laws, policies, plans
Other relevant laws, policies, plans
Biodiversity coordination and management including networks and partnerships between national and subnational governments
Biodiversity finance
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) frameworks
Spatial planning
Multilateral Environment Agreement (MEA)
Pollution management Biodiversity benefits that derive from activities whose primary purpose is the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution. This category covers most of the activities in the environmental protection category used by the SEEA central framework excluding 6, Protection of biodiversity and landscapes (and 8.6, Research on species, etc.). It overlaps with certain pollution control measures in the sustainable use category, such as promotion of sustainable agriculture. If the written objective is to reduce negative impacts, it should be included here; if it is to improve biodiversity in production systems it should be in “sustainable use”. Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water
Protection of ambient air and climate
Other pollution reduction measures
Waste management
Wastewater management
Coastal and marine pollution debris management
Protected areas and other conservation measures In situ and ex situ measures to protect and safeguard biodiversity at genetic, species and ecosystem levels. Protected areas management, including indigenous and communities conserved areas
Expansion of protected areas including transboundary areas and biodiversity corridors
Landscape/seascape conservation, including valuable ecosystem services
Poaching, wildlife trade and CITES
Loss of valuable habitats, including targeted conservation of species outside PAs
Ecosystem connectivity
Ex situ conservation of species (botanical gardens and gene banks)
Other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs), including buffer zones
Restoration The restoration or the rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems for biodiversity and ecosystem services objectives. Reintroduction of species - consider specific sectors under this (e.g., mined out areas, reforestation)
Site redevelopment and engineering
Site management
Post-disaster relief
Sustainable use Sustainable use of renewable natural resource as defined by the CBD. This category is distinguished from the green economy by its focus on ecosystem services, primarily production and the underlying support services. Activities are targeted towards improving biodiversity outcomes in coordination with other co-benefits related to natural resource use. Agrobiodiversity
Sustainable agriculture
Sustainable aquaculture
Sustainable fisheries
Sustainable forestry
Sustainable land management (UNCCD and multiple uses)
Sustainable marine and coastal management
Sustainable rangelands
Sustainable wildlife