Endnotes 1

1 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2001). Handbook of the convention on biological diversity. Earthscan/James & James.

2 Mekonnen, M. M., & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2016). Four billion people facing severe water scarcity. Science advances, 2(2), e1500323. Available from: http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/2/2/e1500323.full.pdf

3 Costanza, Robert and others (2014). Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change, May. pp. 152-168. Available from: http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/19113/Costanza_et_al_GEC_2014_%2B_SI.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

4 FAO (2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/i9540en/I9540EN.pdf

5 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2008). Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth: The Economics and Politics. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/environment/environment-development/42440224.pdf

6 FAO (2016). 2016 State of the World’s Forests. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5588e.pdf

7 United Nations Atlas of the Oceans (2018). Available from: http://www.oceansatlas.org/

8 IUCN (2013). Costal reefs – Facts and Figures. Available from: https://www.iucn.org/content/coral-reefs-facts-and-figures

9 Emerton, L. (2006). Counting coastal ecosystems as an economic part of development infrastructure. Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Colombo. Available from: https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/counting_20coastal_20report_20final.pdf

10 Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockström, J., Cornell, S. E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E. M., ... & Folke, C. (2015). Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science, 347(6223), 1259855. Available from: http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/les/pr210.pdf

11 The Stockholm Resilience Centre has defined nine planetary boundaries, four of which have been crossed: climate change; loss of biosphere integrity; land-system change; and altered biogeochemical cycles (phosphorus and nitrogen). See http://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/research-news/2015-01-15-planetary-boundaries---an-update.html

12 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2014). Global Biodiversity Outlook 4. Available from : https://www.cbd.int/gbo/gbo4/publication/gbo4-en-hr.pdf

13 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Available from: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.html

14 Rainforest Conservation Fund (2018). Current State of tropical rainforest. Available from: http://www.rainforestconservation.org/rainforest-primer/3-rainforests-in-peril-deforestation/a-current-state-of-tropical-rainforests/

15 FAO. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0829e/t0829e04.htm

16 IUCN, 2018. Available from: https://newredlist.iucnredlist.org/

17 IUCN Red List Committee (2013). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Strategic Plan 2013-2020. Available from: http://cmsdocs.s3.amazonaws.com/keydocuments/red_list_strategic_plan_2013_2020.pdf

18 Ceballos, G. and others (2015). Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances, June. Available from: http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/5/e1400253.full

19 The term is like the more commonly used “Conservation Finance” but avoids the connotation of a focus on “conservation” as the primary or only objective

20 Clark, S. (2012). A field guide to conservation finance. Island Press.

21 The available funding for biodiversity is estimated at approximately US$ 52 billion per year. Parker, C., Cranford, M., Oakes, N., & Leggett, M. (2012). The little biodiversity finance book. Global Canopy Programme, Oxford. Available from: http://globalcanopy.org/sites/default/files/documents/resources/LittleBiodiversityFinanceBook_3rd%20edition.pdf

22 Hamrick, K. (2016). State of Private Investment in Conservation 2016: A Landscape Assessment of an Emerging Market. Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace. Available from: https://www.forest-trends.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2016SOPICReport_FINAL_Full-REV.pdf

23 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2012). Resourcing The Aichi Biodiversity Targets: A First Assessment Of The Resources Required For Implementing The Strategic Plan For Biodiversity 2011-2020. Available from: https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/fin/hlpgar-sp-01/official/hlpgar-sp01-01-report-en.pdf

24 Parker, C., Cranford, M., Oakes, N., & Leggett, M. (2012). The little biodiversity finance book. Global Canopy Programme, Oxford. Available from: http://globalcanopy.org/sites/default/files/documents/resources/LittleBiodiversityFinanceBook_3rd%20edition.pdf

25 Credit Suisse, WWF and McKinsey (2014). Conservation Finance: Moving beyond donor funding toward an investor-driven approach. Available from https://www.cbd.int/%20financial/privatesector/g-private-wwf.pdf

26 The World Bank (2016). See: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/GC.TAX.TOTL.GD.ZS

27 Based on comparison of annual biodiversity expenditures (identified above) to global agricultural and other subsidies, quantified at over US$ 450 billion/yr during the 2000s (see Chapter 4).

28 New York Declaration on Forests website accessed September 15, 2018. Available from: http://forestdeclaration.org/goal/goal-8/

29 OECD (2016). Biodiversity-related official development assistance 2015. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/dac/environment-development/Biodiversity-related-ODA.pdf

30 See Figure 1.2.

31 The GEF. See: https://www.thegef.org/topics/biodiversity Accessed September 2018

32 United Nations (2015). Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the third international conference on financing for development. United Nations. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/AAAA_Outcome.pdf

33 The Global Impact Investing Network (GIIN, 2018). Financing the Sustainable Development Goals: Impact Investing in action. Available from: https://thegiin.org/research/publication/financing-sdgs

34 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2015). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4793e.pdf

35 In 2015 the United Nations announced new 17 Sustainable Development Goals with 169 associated targets which are integrated and indivisible. The targets will guide the decisions taken over the next 15 years. See https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf

36 Branford, R. (2014). “Dead or Alive? Valuing an Elephant. Report, David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, Surrey, UK. Available from: http://iworry.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/09/Dead-or-Alive-Final-LR.pdf

37 BIOFIN has adopted the term solution to identify this broad universe, but other known terms used include mechanisms, tools, financing options and strategies, economic instruments, etc.

38 Instrument can be used interchangeably with “mechanism” or “tool”

39 Bovarnick, A., Galindo, J., Fernández-Baca, J., & Negret, H. (2010). Financial sustainability of protected areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: investment policy guidance.

40 World Bank (2017). See: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

41 Protected Planet (2018). See: https://www.protectedplanet.net/marine

42 TEEB (2012). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Business and Enterprise. Edited by Joshua Bishop. Earthscan, London and New York. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joshua_Bishop4/publication/265632652_The_Economics_of_Ecosystems_and_Biodiversity_for_Business/links/57cf332a08ae582e06938e1b/The-Economics-of-Ecosystems-and-Biodiversity-for-Business.pdf

43 See: https://www.forest-trends.org/ecosystem-marketplace/

44 World Resources Institute (2012). Green Vs Gray Infrastructure. Available from: http://www.wri.org/blog/2012/06/green-vs-gray-infrastructure-whennature-better-concrete

45 Burke, L. and H. Ding (2016). Valuation of Coastal Protection near Paramaribo, Suriname. Available from: http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/3__16_02_project_peri_urban_coastal_protection_options_paramaribo___pre_final_report_wri.pdf

46 Ozdemiroglu, E., & Hails, R. (2016). Demystifying Economic Valuation. Available from: http://valuing-nature.net/sites/default/files/images/VNNDemystifying%20Economic%20Valuation-Paper.pdf

47 See https://iwlearn.net/manuals/economic-valuation/the-repository-of-economic-valuation-studies

48 Bolt et al. (2016) Biodiversity at the heart of accounting for natural capital: the key to credibility. Cambridge Conservation Initiative. Available from: http://naturalcapitalcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/CCI-Natural-Capital-Paper-July-2016-low-res.pdf

49 https://www.conservation-strategy.org/en/reports