Endnotes 3

1 Note the focus is on biodiversity finance and not biodiversity per se.

2 Examples: UNDP (2012). Climate Public Expenditure and institutional Reviews (CPEiRs): Approaches and Lessons Learned. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/env/cc/UnDP%20-%20BBB%20Doha%20side%20event%20-%20CPEiR.pdf

3 Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) (2013). Fire Management Working Papers. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/ar053e/ar053e.pdf

4 Pant, D., & Samad, M. (2010). Synthesis of IWMI work in Nepal (Vol. 138). IWMI. Available from: http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/publications/iwmi-workingpapers/iwmi-working-paper-138/

5 Albrecht, J., Schumacher, J., & Wende, W. (2014). The German Impact-Mitigation Regulation. Envtl. Pol'y & L., 44, 317

6 Bitrán, R., Gómez, P., Escobar, L., & Berman, P. (2010). Review of World Bank's Experience with Country-Level Health System Analysis. Available from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/13602/598870REVISED010Box358326B01PUBLIC1.pdf%3Bjsessionid%3DC639968E111E0E66AD0B0E0DF6979C87?sequence%3D1

7 Swiderska, K., Roe, D., Siegele, L., & Grieg-Gran, M. (2008). The governance of nature and the nature of governance: policy that works for biodiversity and livelihoods (Vol. 8). IIED. Available from: http://pubs.iied.org/14564IIED/

8 Convention on international Trade in Endangered Species of Wild fauna and flora (CiTES) (2013). National laws for implementing the Convention. Available from: https://cites.org/eng/legislation

9 See: http://www.ramsar.org/about/the-wise-use-of-wetlands

10 Khan, M. S. H. (2012). Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. Available from: http://www.cms.int/sites/default/files/document/Res6.04_E_0_0.pdf

11 UNCCD, Z. N. L. D. (2012). United Nations convention to combat desertification. See: https://www.unccd.int/convention/about-convention

12 Such as: United nations framework on Convention of Climate Change (UNFCC) (2014). National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs).] See: https://unfccc.int/topics/resilience/workstreams/national-adaptation-programmes-of-action/introduction

13 Available from: http://www.gov.za/issues/national-development-plan-2030

14 Natural Capital Coalition (2016). Natural Capital. Available from: http://naturalcapitalcoalition.org/natural-capital/

15 Ozdemiroglu, E., & Hails, R. (2016). Demystifying Economic Valuation. Available from: http://valuing-nature.net/sites/default/files/images/VNNDemystifying%20Economic%20Valuation-Paper.pdf

16 Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem (iPBES) (2013). Decision iPBES-2/4: Conceptual framework for the intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Available from: http://www.ipbes.net/sites/default/files/downloads/Decision%20IPBES_2_4.pdf

17 Cumming, T. L., Shackleton, R. T., Förster, J., Dini, J., Khan, A., Gumula, M., & Kubiszewski, I. (2017). Achieving the national development agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through investment in ecological infrastructure: A case study of South Africa. Ecosystem Services, 27, 253-260. Available from: http://opus.sanbi.org/bitstream/20.500.12143/5597/1/Cumming_2017_Achieving-the-national-development-agenda-andthe-Sustainable-Development-Goals-SDGs-through-investment-in-ecological-infrastructure-A-ca.pdf

18 Blignaut, J., Marais, C., Rouget, M., Mander, M., Turpie, J., Klassen, T., Preston, G., 2008. Making markets work for people and the environment: employment creation from payment for ecosystem services, combating environmental degradation and poverty on a single budget while delivering real services to real people. Second Economy Strategy: Addressing IneHey in the high rainfall catchments and riparian zones of South Africa on total surface water yield. Water SA 22, 35–42.

19 See: Wood, A., Stedman-Edwards, P., & Mang, J. (2013). The root causes of biodiversity loss. Routledge

20 See a very useful academic review: Maxim, L., Spangenberg, J., & O'Connor, M. (2009). The DPSIR framework for Biodiversity Assessment. Ecological Economics, 69(1), 12-23. See: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222918383_An_analysis_of_risks_for_biodiversity_under_the_DPSIR_framework

21 EEA (1999). Environmental indicators: Typology and overview. Technical report No 25. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

22 European Environment Agency (EEA) (2007). Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010: proposal for a first set of indicators to monitor progress in Europe, EEA Technical Report no. 11/2007, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. ISBN 978-92-9167-931-7 Available from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/technical_report_2007_11

23 The nature of revenues from PES is complex, as a standard broad definition of PES (a system for provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers) covers a range of finance flows. A PES is a cost to the buyer and source of revenue to the seller. Governments and public agencies, and private and third sector stakeholders can be both buyers and sellers, so revenues can accrue to each of them and be identified in the list of revenues.

24 See: http://biodiversityfinance.org/finance-solutions

25 See: http://www.undp.org/content/sdfinance/en/home/how-to-use-this-toolkit/

26 This is also one objective of the BER and FNA

27 Williamson, T. (2011). Reforms to Budget formulation in Uganda: The challenges of building and maintaining and a credible process, overseas Development institute (oDi), London.

28 Forbes, A., Iyer, D., & Steele, P. (2015). Mainstreaming Environment and Climate for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: A Handbook to Strengthen Planning and Budgeting Processes. UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative. Available from: http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Sustainable%20Development/PEI/PEI%20handbook%20brochure-LR.PDF

29 IMF (n.d.) Budget Preparation. Available from: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/expend/guide3.htm

30 Williamson, T. (2011). Reforms to Budget formulation in Uganda: The challenges of building and maintaining and a credible process, overseas Development institute (oDi), London.

31 Flores, M., & Bovernick, A. (2016). Guide to improving the budget and funding of national protected areas systems. Lessons from Chile, Guatemala and Peru. United Nations Development Programme, New York. Available from: https://www.cbd.int/financial/guides/undp-rblc-pabg.pdf

32 Bovarnick, A., and others (2010). Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC). Available from: https://www.cbd.int/financial/finplanning/gplanscorelatin-undp.pdf

33 OECD (2005). Environmentally Harmful Subsidies: Challenges for Reform. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/tad/fisheries/environmentallyharmfulsubsidieschallengesforreform.htm?_sm_au_=iqVf4vT022Z302T6

34 Lehmann, M., ten Brink, P., Bassi, S., Cooper, D., Kenny, A., Kuppler, S., ... & Shine, C. (2011). Reforming Subsidies. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) in National and International Policy Making. Available from: https://www.cbd.int/financial/doc/teeb-reforming-subsidies-en.pdf

35 Based on an OECD presentation, Karousakis, K., ‘Greening Harmful Subsidies’ at the 3rd Global BIOFIN conference, March 2018, with updated numbers provided by the OECD Secretariat. OECD (2018a), OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2018, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264286061-en;

36 IMV (2005). Environmentally Harmful Subsidies – A Threat to Biodiversity. Available from: https://www.cbd.int/financial/fiscalenviron/gsubsidiesoverview.pdf

37 Weerahewa, J., Kodithuwakku, S. S., & Ariyawardana, A. (2010). The fertilizer subsidy program in Sri Lanka. Food policy for developing countries: Case studies, ed. P. Pinstrup-Andersen and F. Cheng. Ithaca: Cornell University. Retrieved August, 26, 2014. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jeevika_Weerahewa/publication/256186294_Fertilizer_subsidy_programme_in_Sri_Lanka/links/55f03fae08aedecb68ff514f.pdf

38 UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative (2015). Mainstreaming Environment and Climate for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: A Handbook to Strengthen Planning and Budgeting Processes. Annex A. Available from: http://www.unpei.org/sites/default/files/publications/PEI%20handbook-low%20res.pdf