Endnotes 6

1 World Health Organization (WHO). Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (2013). WHO-UNICEF guidelines for developing a comprehensive multiyear plan (cMYP). Available from: http://www.who.int/immunization/programmes_systems/financing/tools/cmyp/en/

2 State of Private Investment in Conservation (2016). Available from: https://www.forest-trends.org/publications/state-of-private-investment-inconservation-2016/

3 Conservation Finance (2014).Moving beyond donor funding toward an investor-driven approach. Available from: https://www.cbd.int/financial/privatesector/g-private-wwf.pdf

4 Global Sustainable Investment Review (2016). Available from: www.ussif.org/files/Publications/GSIA_Review2016.pdf

5 UNDP BIOFIN program core countries receive financing for initial piloting of the BFP. Small pilot successes could provide strong incentives to implement the rest of the Plan, and timely opportunities to scale existing finance solutions should be explored throughout the BIOFIN Process.

6 Four broad results of finance solutions are described in Chapter 2: Realign expenditures; Avoid future expenditures; Deliver better; Generate revenue. See: http://biodiversityfinance.org/finance-solutions

7 See: http://www.undp.org/content/sdfinance/en/home.html

8 Economic valuation evidence is defined and identified in the PIR (Chapter 4).

9 “Critical” ecosystem services may be defined as those with a very high value to people, those that are impossible or very expensive to replace, and/ or those where there is a risk of collapse (See Section 1.2.1 in Chapter 1).

10 This could be more if many are similar, i.e. a series of PES/Water solutions in different regions that are mostly the same other than location.

11 Sources include:

12 DEA and SANBI (2011). Making the case for biodiversity: phase 1. Final draft project summary report. Available from: http://biodiversityadvisor.sanbi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/final-draft-mtc-summary-report-september-2011.pdf

13 O’Donohoe, N., Leijonhufvud, C., Saltuk, Y., Bugg-Levine, A., & Brandenburg, M. (2010). Impact Investments. An emerging asset class, 96. Available from: https://thegiin.org/assets/documents/Impact%20Investments%20an%20Emerging%20Asset%20Class2.pdf

14 Credit Suisse (2016). Glossary. Available from: https://www.credit-suisse.com/media/assets/private-banking/docs/ch/privatkunden/eigenheimfinanzieren/glossary-mortgages-en.pdf

15 See: http://www.socialvalueuk.org/

16 See: http://www.socialvalueuk.org

17 Tear, T. H., Stratton, B. N., Game, E. T., Brown, M. A., Apse, C. D., & Shirer, R. R. (2014). A return-on-investment framework to identify conservation priorities in Africa. Biological Conservation, 173, 42-52. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320714000305

18 Klein, C.J. and others (2010). Prioritizing Land and Sea Conservation Investments to Protect Coral Reefs. PLoS ONE, 5(8), e12431. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012431

19 Droogers, P. and others (2015). Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund: A business case. The Nature Conservancy. Available from: https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/stories-in-africa/nairobi-water-fund/