Endnotes 7

1 de Coninck, S. (2009). Mainstreaming poverty-environment linkages into development planning: A handbook for practitioners. UNEP/Earthprint. Available from: http://www.unpei.org/sites/default/files/dmdocuments/PEI%20Full%20handbook.pdf

2 OECD (2012). Measuring Regulatory Performance: A Practitioner's Guide to Perception Surveys, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264167179-en

3 Based on Fritz, V., Levy, B., & Ort, R. (Eds.) (2014). Problem-Driven Political Economy Analysis: The World Bank's Experience. The World Bank. Available from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/16389/9781464801211.pdf;sequence=1

4 DFID (2009). Political Economy Analysis How To Note. See also: ODI Analytical Framework for Conducting Political Economy Analysis in Sectors; World Bank Problem Driven Governance and Political Economy Analysis. Available from: https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/events-documents/3797.pdf

5 Mcloughlin, C. (2014). Political economy analysis: Topic guide (2nd ed.) Birmingham, UK: GSDRC, University of Birmingham. See: http://gsdrc.org/topic-guides/political-economy-analysis/

6 See: https://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/finance/Guide_Tourism_Nov2001.pdf

7 See: http://conservation-strategy.org/sites/default/files/field-file/EN_discussion_paper_TANAPA.pdf

8 Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP) (2009). Biodiversity Offset Implementation Handbook. BBOP, Washington, D.C. Available from: www.forest-trends.org/wp-content/uploads/imported/biodiversity-offset-implementation-handbook-pdf.pdf

9 Fripp, E. (2014). Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES): A practical guide to assessing the feasibility of PES projects. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). doi:10.17528/cifor/005260 Available from: http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BFripp1401.pdf

10 See: https://www.worldbank.org/en/projects-operations/environmental-and-social-policies

11 See: https://redd.unfccc.int/fact-sheets/safeguards.html

12 The decision-making cycle that prioritizes each project’s reviewing options for avoiding negative impacts, and if not possible, minimizing and rehabilitating biodiversity loss. If those options are exhausted and biodiversity loss is considered inevitable, deploying biodiversity offsets is a valid, but last resort option.

13 See Business and Biodiversity Offset Programme (BBOP). Available from: http://bbop.forest-trends.org/pages/mitigation_hierarchy

14 CBD 12th meeting (2014). Decision adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. XII/3 Resource Mobilization. Available from: www.cbd.int/doc/decisions/cop-12/cop-12-dec-03-en.pdf

15 See: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/operations1/undp-social-and-environmental-screening-procedure.html